Nakamura – Don’t hate the players…

“…the construction of Chinese identity in MMO’s as abject, undesirable, and socially contaminated racializes the culture of online games…”

“Thus, though it is the case that players cannot see eachothers’ bodies while playing, specific forms of gamic labor, such as gold farming andselling, as well as specific styles of play have become racialized as Chinese, producingnew forms of networked racism that are particularly easy for players to disavow.”(pg130)

“MUDs, virtual communities based upon gift economies which were distinguished by their key differences from the ‘‘real world’’ of capital, labor, and profit have given way to for-profit virtual worlds that increasingly dominate the media landscape. This has created an increasingly polarized social environment; one divided into ‘‘leisure players’’ and ‘‘worker players,’’ virtual property buyers and laborer/sellers, and Asians and non-Asians. Asian ‘‘farmers’’ or virtual capital laborers have a significant cultural and social impact on MMOs.” (132

“…their high-tech labor in low-tech conditions more closely resembles maquiladora factory laborers’ conditions than it does other recreational or professional software-based activities.”(140)

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